Zope and WSGI

Starting with Zope 4, a WSGI-compatible application entry point is the default option for serving your site. Zope comes with a set of scripts to set up a default WSGI stack with waitress as WSGI server, but any other WSGI server can be used.

WSGI application entry points

To use Zope as an application in a PasteDeploy-style .ini configuration file, use the Zope#main entry point and specify a path to a Zope configuration file:

use = egg:Zope#main
zope_conf = /path/to/zope.conf

To compose your pipeline in Python code:

from Zope2.startup.run import make_wsgi_app

app = make_wsgi_app({}, '/path/to/zope.conf')

Building a Zope instance with WSGI support

Zope ships with several helper scripts to set up a default WSGI-enabled environment. The document Configuring and Running Zope walks you through using mkwsgiinstance for a default configuration that you can use in conjunction with the runwsgi script to start a Zope instance.

The buildout extension plone.recipe.zope2instance expands on that and adds a script wrapper for convenient starting and stopping as well as a host of other functions. Take a look at their PyPI page listing all options.

Logging configuration

When running Zope under the old ZServer, logging configurations were built in. Now they are explicit and part of the WSGI configuration .ini file. The default configurations created by mkwsgiinstance and plone.recipe.zope2instance are suitable for most applications.

Keep in mind that different WSGI servers have different logging behaviors. Some have their own access and event logging, some don’t log anything at all. For good control over your application’s logging needs, the default configurations use the translogger WSGI middleware from the Paste package. It can capture and log all errors propagating from your application.


If your application is created using a custom zc.buildout configuration and you want to use translogger for logging, make sure to include the Paste egg in your buildout’s eggs specification.

You can use the generated default WSGI configuration’s logging sections as a starting point for changes. The Python Logging Cookbook has a great selection of topics for advanced configurations.

Choosing WSGI server software

The WSGI integration gives you a choice of WSGI server software to run your Zope application. This section lists several options that were selected because they either have a PasteDeploy entry point or have one provided by shim software, which means they work with the default Zope scripts for starting/stopping the service.

Things to watch out for

The ZODB uses connection pooling where a working thread grabs a connection from the pool to serve content and then releases it when the work is done. The default size of this connection pool is 7. The advice from ZServer days to choose a number of application threads that stays safely below that number of ZODB connections is still valid. ZServer used 4 threads by default, so if the WSGI server lets you configure the number of threads 4 is still a safe choice.

Another recommendation from Zope 2 is still valid as well: If you have a choice between less Zope instances with a higher number of threads each, or more instances with less threads each, choose the latter. Create more separate Zope instances and set the WSGI server threads value to e.g. 2.


If the WSGI server software lets you configure a number of worker processes, like gunicorn does, do not configure more than a single worker. Otherwise you will see issues due to concurrent ZODB access by more than one process, which may corrupt your ZODB.

Test criteria for recommendations

A simple contrived load test was done with the following parameters:

  • 100 concurrent clients accessing Zope
  • 100 seconds run time
  • the clients just fetch “/”
  • standard Zope 4 instances, one with ZEO and one without
  • Python 2.7.16 on macOS Mojave/10.14.4
  • standard WSGI server configurations, the only changes are to number of threads and/or number of workers where available.

This load test uncovered several issues:

  • cheroot (tested version: 6.5.5) was magnitudes slower than all others. Unlike the others, it did not max out CPU. It is unclear where the slowdown originates. Others reached 500-750 requests/second. cheroot only served 12 requests/second per configured thread.
  • gunicorn (tested version: 19.9.0) showed very strange behavior against the non-ZEO Zope instance. It serves around 500 requests/second, but then hangs and serves no requests for several seconds, before picking up again.
  • gunicorn (tested version: 19.9.0) does not like the ZEO instance at all. No matter what configuration in terms of threads or workers was chosen gunicorn just hung so badly that even CTRL-C would not kill it. Switching to an asynchronous type of worker (tested with gevent) did not make a difference.
  • werkzeug (tested version: 0.15.2) does not let you specify the number of threads, you only tell it to use threads or not. In threaded mode it spawns too many threads and immedialy runs up agains the ZODB connection pool limits, so with Zope only the unthreaded mode is suitable. Even in unthreaded mode, the service speed was inconsistent. Just like gunicorn it had intermittent hangs before recovering.
  • bjoern (tested version: 3.0.0) is the clear speed winner with 740 requests/second against both the ZEO and non-ZEO Zope instance, even though it is single-threaded.
  • waitress (tested version: 1.3.0) is the all-around best choice. It’s just 10-15% slower than bjoern, but both the built-in WSGI tools as well as plone.recipe.zope2instance use it as the default and make it very convenient to use.

Problematic WSGI servers


werkzeug is a WSGI library that contains not just a WSGI server, but also a powerful debugger. It can easily integrate wth Zope using a shim package called dataflake.wsgi.werkzeug. See the Using this package section for how to integrate werkzeug using Zope’s own runwsgi script and how to create a suitable WSGI configuration.

If you use plone.recipe.zope2instance, the following section will pull in the correct dependencies, after you have created a WSGI configuration file:

recipe = plone.recipe.zope2instance
eggs =
zodb-temporary-storage = off
user = admin:password
http-address = 8080
wsgi = ${buildout:directory}/etc/werkzeug.ini


The gunicorn WSGI server has a built-in PasteDeploy entry point and integrates easily. The following example buildout configuration section will create a bin/runwsgi script that uses gunicorn.

recipe = zc.recipe.egg
eggs =
scripts =

You can use this script with a WSGI configuration file that you have to create yourself. Please see the gunicorn documentation, especially the Configuration File section on Configuration Overview, for Paster Application configuration information. A very simple server configuration looks like this:

use = egg:gunicorn#main
host =
port = 8080
proc_name = zope

You can then run the server using runwsgi:

$ bin/runwsgi etc/gunicorn.ini
2019-04-22 11:45:39 INFO [Zope:45][MainThread] Ready to handle requests
Starting server in PID 84983.


gunicorn version 19.9.0 or less will print an ominous warning message on the console upon startup that seems to suggest their WSGI entry point is deprecated in favor of using their own built-in scripts. This is misleading. Future versions will not show this message.

If you use plone.recipe.zope2instance, you can make it use gunicorn by adding its egg to the buildout section and setting the WSGI configuration file path to the path of the configuration file you created yourself:

recipe = plone.recipe.zope2instance
eggs =
zodb-temporary-storage = off
user = admin:password
http-address = 8080
wsgi = ${buildout:directory}/etc/gunicorn.ini


The cheroot WSGI server can be integrated using a shim package called dataflake.wsgi.cheroot. See the Using this package section for details on how to integrate cheroot using Zope’s own runwsgi script and how to create a suitable WSGI configuration.

If you use plone.recipe.zope2instance, the following section will pull in the correct dependencies:

recipe = plone.recipe.zope2instance
eggs =
zodb-temporary-storage = off
user = admin:password
http-address = 8080
wsgi = ${buildout:directory}/etc/cheroot.ini

Debugging Zope applications under WSGI

You can debug a WSGI-based Zope application the same way you have debugged ZServer-based installations in the past. In addition, you can now take advantage of WSGI middleware or debugging facilities built into the chosen WSGI server.

When developing your application or debugging, which is the moment you want to use debugging tools, you can start your Zope instance in exceptions debug mode. This will disable all registered exception views including standard_error_message so that exceptions are not masked or hidden.

This is how you run Zope in exceptions debug mode using the built-in runwsgi script:

$ bin/runwsgi -e etc/zope.ini

If you built your environment using plone.recipe.zope2instance you will need to do a manual change to your Zope configuration file. Enable exceptions debug mode by adding the debug-exceptions on setting before starting your application. The example presumes the Zope instance was named zopeinstance, your Zope configuration file will be at parts/zopeinstance/etc/zope.conf.

bin/zopeinstance fg

With Zope set up to let WSGI handle exceptions, these are a few options for the WSGI pipeline:

If you use waitress, you can make it output exception tracebacks in the browser by configuring expose_tracebacks. The keyword works in both standard and plone.recipe.zope2instance configurations:

use = egg:waitress#main
host =
port = 8080
expose_tracebacks = True

... or ...

paste.server_factory = plone.recipe.zope2instance:main
use = egg:plone.recipe.zope2instance#main
listen =
threads = 2
expose_tracebacks = True

werkzeug includes a full-featured debugging tool. See the dataflake.wsgi.werkzeug documentation for how to enable the debugger. Once you’re up and running, the werkzeug debugger documentation will show you how to use it.